Chapter 4


The Lord has established his throne in the heavens, and his kingdom rules over all. Psalms 103:19 (ESV)

First I will offer a word concerning the need for God to govern the material world. For instance, suppose for a moment it was the opposite. For the sake of argument, let’s say that God created the world, designed and fixed certain laws (which men term “the laws of Nature”), and then He withdrew, leaving the world to chance in the out-working of these laws. In such a case, we would have a world over which there was no intelligent, presiding Governor, a world controlled by nothing more than impersonal laws—a concept which is worthy of gross Materialism and blank Atheism. But, suppose for a moment that in light of such a supposition, we consider the following question:—what guaranty do we have that someday before long the world won’t be destroyed? A very superficial observation of “the laws of Nature” reveals the fact that they are not uniform in their working. The proof of this is seen in the fact that no two seasons are alike. If then Nature’s laws are irregular in their operations; what guaranty do we have against some dreadful catastrophe striking our earth? “The wind blows where it wishes” which means that man can neither harness nor hinder it. Sometimes the wind blows with great fury, and it might suddenly gather in volume and velocity, until it became a hurricane earth-wide in its range. If there is nothing more than the laws of Nature regulating the wind, then, perhaps tomorrow, there may come a terrific tornado and sweep everything from the face of the earth! What assurance do we have against such a calamity? Again, recently we have heard and read much about clouds bursting and flooding whole districts, working fearful havoc in the destruction of both property and life. Man is helpless before them, because science cannot devise any means to prevent clouds from bursting. How do we know that these bursting-clouds won’t be multiplied indefinitely and the whole earth become deluged by their downpour? This would be nothing new. For instance, what’s to prevent the Flood of Noah’s day from being repeated? And how about earthquakes? Every few years, some island or some great city is swept out of existence by one of them—and what can man do? Where is the guaranty that in the not too distant future a mammoth earthquake won’t destroy the whole world? Science tells us of great subterranean fires burning beneath the comparatively thin crust of our earth, how do we know that these fires will not suddenly burst forth and consume our entire globe? Surely every reader now sees the point we are seeking to make: Deny that God is governing matter, deny that He is “upholding all things by the word of His power” (Hebrews 1:3), and all sense of security is gone!

Let’s pursue a similar course of reasoning in connection with the human race. Is God governing this world of ours? Is He shaping the destinies of nations, controlling the course of empires, determining the limits of dynasties? Has He proscribed the limits of evil-doers, saying, Thus far shall you go and no further? Let’s suppose the opposite for a moment. Let’s assume that God has delivered over the helm of the world into the hands of His creatures, and see where such a supposition leads us. For the sake of argument we will say that every man enters this world endowed with a will that is absolutely free, and that it is impossible to compel or even coerce him without destroying his freedom. Let’s also say that every man possesses knowledge of right and wrong, that he has the power to choose between them, and that he is left entirely free to make his own choice and go his own way. Then what? Then it follows that man is sovereign, because he does as he pleases and is the architect of his own future. But in such a case we can have no assurance that before long every man will reject the good and choose the evil. In such a case we have no guaranty against the entire human race committing moral suicide. Let all Divine restraints be removed and leave man absolutely free, and all ethical distinctions would immediately disappear, the spirit of barbarism would prevail universally, and pandemonium would reign supreme. Why not? If one nation deposes its rulers and repudiates its constitution, what is there to prevent all nations from doing the same? If little more than a century ago the streets of Paris ran with the blood of rioters, what assurance have we that before the present century closes every city throughout the world will not witness a similar sight? What is there to hinder worldwide lawlessness and universal anarchy? Thus we have sought to show the need, the imperative need, for God to occupy the Throne, take the government upon His shoulder, and control the activities and destinies of His creatures.


That God governs inanimate matter, that inanimate matter performs His bidding and fulfils His decrees, is clearly shown on the very beginning of Divine revelation. God said, “Let there be light,” and we read, “There was light.” God said, “Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear,” and “it was so.” And again, “God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.” As the Psalmist declares, “He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast.” That which is stated in Genesis One is afterwards illustrated throughout the Bible. After the creation of Adam, sixteen centuries went by before ever a shower of rain fell upon the earth, because before Noah “”a mist was going up from the land and was watering the whole face of the ground”— Genesis 2:6 (ESV). But, when the iniquities of the antediluvians had come to the full, then God said, “And, behold, I, even. I, will bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and everything that is in the earth shall die;” and in fulfillment of this we read, “For behold, I will bring a flood of waters upon the earth to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life under heaven. Everything that is on the earth shall die,” Genesis 6:17 (ESV). “In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep burst forth and the windows of the heavens were opened. 12 And rain fell upon the earth forty days and forty nights,” Genesis 7:11-12 (ESV)

Consider God’s absolute (and sovereign) control of inanimate matter in connection with the plagues upon Egypt. At His bidding the light was turned into darkness and rivers into blood; hail fell, and death came down upon the godless land of the Nile, until even its arrogant monarch was compelled to cry out for deliverance. Note particularly how the inspired record emphasizes God’s absolute control over the elements—”Then Moses stretched out his staff toward heaven, and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and fire ran down to the earth. And the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt. 24 There was hail and fire flashing continually in the midst of the hail, very heavy hail, such as had never been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation. 25 The hail struck down everything that was in the field in all the land of Egypt, both man and beast. And the hail struck down every plant of the field and broke every tree of the field. 26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the people of Israel were, was there no hail,” Exodus 9:23-26 (ESV). The same distinction was observed in connection with the ninth plague: “Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness to be felt.” 22 So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was pitch darkness in all the land of Egypt three days. 23 They did not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days, but all the people of Israel had light where they lived. Exodus 10:21-23 (ESV)

The above examples are by no means isolated cases. At God’s decree fire and brimstone descended from heaven and the cities of the Plain were destroyed, and a fertile valley was converted into a loathsome sea of death. At His bidding the waters of the Red Sea parted asunder so that the Israelites passed over dry shod, and at His word they rolled back again and destroyed the Egyptians who were pursuing them. A word from Him, and the earth opened her mouth and Korah and his rebellious company was swallowed up. The furnace of Nebuchadnezzar was heated seven times beyond its normal temperature, and into it three of God’s children were cast, but the fire did not so much as scorch their clothes, though it slew the men who cast them into it.

What a demonstration of the Creator’s governmental control over the elements was furnished when He became flesh and tabernacled among men! Behold Him asleep in the boat. A storm arises. The winds roar and the waves are lashed into a fury. The disciples who are with Him were fearful their little craft might flounder, and so they woke their Master, saying, “Teacher, do you not care that we are perishing?” Mark 4:38 (ESV). And then we read, “And he awoke and rebuked the wind and said to the sea, “Peace! Be still!” And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm,” Mark 4:39 (ESV). Notice again the sea at the will of its Creator; bore Him up upon its waves. At a word from Him the fig-tree withered; at His touch disease fled instantly.

The heavenly bodies are also ruled by their Maker and perform His sovereign pleasure. Consider a couple of illustrations. At God’s bidding the sun went back ten degrees on the dial of Ahaz to help the weak faith of Hezekiah. In New Testament times, God caused a star to herald the incarnation of His Son—the star which appeared to the wise men of the East. This star, we are told, “went before them till it came and stood over where the young Child was” (Matthew 2:9).

What a declaration is this—“He sends out his command to the earth; his word runs swiftly. 16 He gives snow like wool; he scatters hoarfrost like ashes. 17 He hurls down his crystals of ice like crumbs; who can stand before his cold? 18 He sends out his word, and melts them; he makes his wind blow and the waters flow. Psalms 147:15-18 (ESV).

The mutations of the elements are beneath God’s sovereign control. It is God who withholds the rain, and it is God who gives the rain when He wills, where He wills, as He wills, and on whom He wills. Weather Bureaus may attempt to give forecasts of the weather, but how frequently God mocks their calculations! Sun ‘spots,’ the varying activities of the planets, the appearing and disappearing of comets (to which abnormal weather is sometimes attributed), atmospheric disturbances, are merely secondary causes, for behind them all is God Himself. Let His Word speak once more: “I also withheld the rain from you when there were yet three months to the harvest; I would send rain on one city, and send no rain on another city; one field would have rain, and the field on which it did not rain would wither; 8 so two or three cities would wander to another city to drink water, and would not be satisfied; yet you did not return to me,” declares the Lord. 9 “I struck you with blight and mildew; your many gardens and your vineyards, your fig trees and your olive trees the locust devoured; yet you did not return to me,” declares the Lord. 10 “I sent among you a pestilence after the manner of Egypt; I killed your young men with the sword, and carried away your horses, and I made the stench of your camp go up into your nostrils; yet you did not return to me,” declares the Lord. Amos 4:7-10 (ESV).

Truly, then, God governs inanimate matter. Earth and air, fire and water, hail and snow, stormy winds and angry seas, all perform the word of His power and fulfill His sovereign pleasure. Therefore, when we complain about the weather, we are, in reality, murmuring against God.


What a striking illustration of God’s government over the animal kingdom is found in Genesis 2:19! “So out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the heavens and brought them to the man to see what he would call them. And whatever the man called every living creature that was its name, Genesis 2:19 (ESV). Should it be said that this occurred in Eden, and took place before the fall of Adam and the consequent curse which was inflicted on every creature, then our next reference fully meets the objection: God’s control of the beasts was again openly displayed at the Flood. Notice how God caused every living thing of all flesh to “come into” Noah. “And of every living thing of all flesh, you shall bring two of every sort into the ark to keep them alive with you. They shall be male and female. 20 Of the birds according to their kinds, and of the animals according to their kinds, of every creeping thing of the ground, according to its kind, two of every sort shall come in to you to keep them alive. Genesis 6:19-20 (ESV) —all were beneath God’s sovereign control. The lion of the jungle, the elephant of the forest, the bear of the polar regions; the ferocious panther, the untamable wolf, the fierce tiger; the high-soaring eagle and the creeping crocodile—see them all in their native fierceness, and yet, quietly submitting to the will of their Creator, and coming two by two into the ark!

We referred to the plagues sent upon Egypt as illustrating God’s control of inanimate matter; let us now turn to them again to see how they demonstrate His perfect ruler-ship over irrational creatures. At His word the river brought forth frogs abundantly, and these frogs entered the palace of Pharaoh and the houses of his servants and, contrary to their natural instincts, they entered the beds, the ovens and the kneading troughs (Exodus 8:13). Swarms of flies invaded the land of Egypt, but there were no flies in the land of Goshen! (Exodus 8:22). Next, the cattle were stricken, and we read, “behold, the hand of the Lord will fall with a very severe plague upon your livestock that are in the field, the horses, the donkeys, the camels, the herds, and the flocks. 4 But the Lord will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, so that nothing of all that belongs to the people of Israel shall die.” ‘ ” 5 And the Lord set a time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this thing in the land.” 6 And the next day the Lord did this thing. All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one of the livestock of the people of Israel died.” Exodus 9:3-6 (ESV). In a similar manner God sent clouds of locusts to plague Pharaoh and his land, appointing the time of their visitation, determining the course and assigning the limits of their devastation.

Angels are not the only ones who do God’s bidding. The brute beasts equally perform His pleasure. The sacred ark, the Ark of the Covenant, is in the country of the Philistines. How is it to be brought back to its homeland? Notice the servants of God’s choice, and how completely they were beneath His control: “And the Philistines called for the priests and the diviners and said, “What shall we do with the ark of the Lord? Tell us with what we shall send it to its place.” 1 Samuel 6:2 (ESV) And they said….“ Now then, take and prepare a new cart and two milk cows on which there has never come a yoke, and yoke the cows to the cart, but take their calves home, away from them. 8 And take the ark of the Lord and place it on the cart and put in a box at its side the figures of gold, which you are returning to him as a guilt offering. Then send it off and let it go its way 9 and watch. If it goes up on the way to its own land, to Beth-shemesh, then it is he who has done us this great harm, but if not, then we shall know that it is not his hand that struck us; it happened to us by coincidence.” 1 Samuel 6:7-9 (ESV) And what happened? Observe how striking is the sequel is “And the cows went straight in the direction of Beth-shemesh along one highway, lowing as they went. They turned neither to the right nor to the left, and the lords of the Philistines went after them as far as the border of Beth-shemesh.” 1 Samuel 6:12 (ESV) Equally striking is the case of Elijah: “And the word of the Lord came to him, 3 “Depart from here and turn eastward and hide yourself by the brook Cherith, which is east of the Jordan. 4 You shall drink from the brook, and I have commanded the ravens to feed you there.” 1 Kings 17:2-4 (ESV) The natural instincts of these birds of prey was held in subjection to God, and instead of consuming the food themselves, they carried it to Jehovah’s servant in his solitary retreat.

Is further proof required? Then it is ready to hand. God makes a dumb ass rebuke the prophet’s madness. He sends forth two she-bears from the woods to devour forty two of Elijah’s tormentors. In fulfillment of His word, He causes the dogs to lick up the blood of the wicked Jezebel. He seals the mouths of Babylon’s lions when Daniel is cast into the den, though, later, He causes them to devour the prophet’s accusers. He prepares a great fish to swallow the disobedient Jonah and then, when His ordained hour struck, compelled it to vomit him forth on dry land. At His bidding a fish carries a coin to Peter for tribute money, and in order to fulfill His word He makes the cock to crow twice after Peter’s denial. Thus we see that God reigns over irrational creatures: beasts of the field, birds of the air, fishes of the sea, all perform His sovereign bidding.


We fully appreciate the fact that this is the most difficult part of our subject, and, accordingly, it will be dealt with at greater length in the pages that follow; but at present we consider the fact of God’s government over men in general, before we attempt to deal with the problem in detail.

Two alternatives confront us, and between them we are obliged to choose: either God governs, or He is governed: either God rules or He is ruled; either God has His way, or men have theirs. And is our choice between these alternatives hard to make? Shall we say that in man we behold a creature so unruly that he is beyond God’s control? Shall we say that sin has alienated the sinner so far from the thrice Holy One that he is outside the pale of His jurisdiction? Or, shall we say that man has been endowed with moral responsibility, and therefore God must leave him entirely free, at least during the period of his probation? Does it necessarily follow that because the natural man is an outlaw against heaven, a rebel against the Divine government, that God is unable to fulfill His purpose through him? We mean, not merely that He may overrule the effects of the actions of evil-doers, nor that He will yet bring the wicked to stand before His judgment-bar so that sentence of punishment may be passed upon them— multitudes of non-Christians believe these things—but, we mean, that every action of the most lawless of His subjects is entirely beneath His control, yea that the actor although unknown to himself is carrying out the secret decrees of the Most High. Was it not thus with Judas? And is it possible to select a more extreme case? If then the arch-rebel was performing the counsel of God is it any greater tax upon our faith to believe the same of all rebels?

Our present objective is not some philosophical inquiry or metaphysical rationalization. On the contrary, it’s to ascertain the teaching of Scripture upon this profound theme. In other words, it’s to the Law and the Testimony, because it is only there that we can learn of the Divine government—its character, its design, its modus operandi, and its scope. What then has it pleased God to reveal to us in His blessed Word concerning His rule over the works of His hands, and particularly, over the one who originally was made in His own image and likeness?

“In Him we live, and move, and have our being” (Acts 17:28). What a sweeping assertion is this! Notice these words were addressed, not to one of the churches of God, not to a company of saints who had reached an exalted plane of spirituality, but to a heathen audience, to those who worshipped “the unknown God” and who “mocked” when they heard of the resurrection of the dead. And yet, to the Athenian philosophers, to the Epicureans and Stoics, the apostle Paul did not hesitate to affirm that they lived and moved and had their being in God, which signified not only that they owed their existence and preservation to the One who made the world and all things therein, but also that their very actions were encompassed and therefore controlled by the Lord of heaven and earth. Compare Daniel 5:23, last clause! “The plans of the heart belong to man, but the answer of the tongue is from the Lord. Proverbs 16:1 (ESV) Notice that the above declaration is of general application—it is of “man,” not simply of believers, that this is predicated. “The heart of man plans his way, but the Lord establishes his steps. Proverbs 16:9 (ESV) If the Lord directs the steps of a man, is it not proof that he is being controlled or governed by God? Again; “Many are the plans in the mind of a man, but it is the purpose of the Lord that will stand. Proverbs 19:21 (ESV) Can this mean anything less than, that no matter what man may desire and plan, it is the will of his Maker which is executed? As an illustration take the “Rich Fool” The “devices” of his heart are made known to us—“and he thought to himself, ‘What shall I do, for I have nowhere to store my crops?’ 18 And he said, ‘I will do this: I will tear down my barns and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. 19 And I will say to my soul, Soul, you have ample goods laid up for many years; relax, eat, drink, be merry.’ Luke 12:17-19 (ESV) Such were the “devices” of his heart; nevertheless it was “the counsel of the Lord” that stood. The “I will’s” of the rich man ammounted to nothing when “God said to him, ‘Fool! This night your soul is required of you, and the things you have prepared, whose will they be?’ Luke 12:20 (ESV)“The king’s heart is a stream of water in the hand of the Lord; he turns it wherever he will. Proverbs 21:1 (ESV) What could be more explicit? Out of the heart are “the issues of life” (Proverbs 4:23), for as a man “thinketh in his heart, so is he” (Proverbs 23:7). If then the human heart is in the hand of the Lord, and if “He turns it wherever He will,” then is it not clear that men, yea, governors and rulers, and so all men, are completely beneath the governmental control of the Almighty!

No limitations must be placed upon the above declarations. To insist that some men, at least, do thwart God’s will and overturn His counsels, is to repudiate other scriptures equally explicit. Weigh well the following: “But he is unchangeable, and who can turn him back? What he desires, that he does.” Job 23:13 (ESV) “The counsel of the Lord stands forever, the plans of his heart to all generations.” Psalms 33:11 (ESV)” No wisdom, no understanding, no counsel can avail against the Lord.” Proverbs 21:30 (ESV) 27 For the Lord of hosts has purposed, and who will annul it? His hand is stretched out, and who will turn it back?” Isaiah 14:27 (ESV) “remember the former things of old; for I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me, 10 declaring the end from the beginning and from ancient times things not yet done, saying, ‘My counsel shall stand, and I will accomplish all my purpose,’ Isaiah 46:9-10 (ESV) There is no ambiguity in these passages. They affirm in the most unequivocal and unqualified terms that it is impossible to thwart the purpose of Jehovah.

We read the Scriptures in vain if we fail to discover that the actions of men, evil men as well as good, are governed by the Lord God. Nimrod and his followers determined to erect the tower of Babel, but before their task was accomplished God frustrated their plans. God called Abraham “alone” (Isaiah 51:2), but his kinsfolk accompanied him as he left Ur of the Chaldees. Was then the will of the Lord defeated? Not at all! Notice the sequel. Terah died before Canaan was reached (Genesis 11:31), and though Lot accompanied his uncle into the land of promise, he soon separated from him and settled down in Sodom. Jacob was the child to whom the inheritance was promised, and though Isaac sought to reverse Jehovah’s decree and bestow the blessing upon Esau, his efforts came to naught. Esau again swore vengeance upon Jacob, but the next time they met they wept for joy instead of fighting in hate. Joseph brothers determined his destruction, but their evil counsels were overthrown. Pharaoh refused to let Israel carry out the instructions of Jehovah and perished in the Red Sea for his pains. Balak hired Balaam to curse the Israelites, but God compelled him to bless them. Haman erected a gallows for Mordecai but was hanged upon it himself. Jonah resisted the revealed will of God, but what became of his efforts?

Ah, the heathen may “rage” and the people imagine a “vain thing”; the kings of the earth may “set themselves”, and the rulers take counsel together against the Lord and against His Christ, saying, 3 “Let us burst their bonds apart and cast away their cords from us.” Psalms 2:3 (ESV) But is the great God perturbed or disturbed by the rebellion of His puny creatures? No, indeed: 4 “He who sits in the heavens laughs; the Lord holds them in derision.” Psalms 2:4 (ESV) He is infinitely exalted above all, and the greatest confederacies of earth’s pawns, and their most extensive and vigorous preparations to defeat His purpose are, in His sight, altogether silly. He looks upon their puny efforts, not only without any alarm, but He “laughs” at their folly; He treats their impotency with “derision.” He knows that He can crush them like moths when He pleases, or consume them in a moment with the breath of His mouth. Ah, it’s “a vain thing” for the potsherds of the earth to strive with the glorious Majesty of Heaven. Such is our God; worship ye Him.


The angels are God’s servants, His messengers, His chariots. They always hearken to the word of His mouth and do His commands.15 “And God sent the angel to Jerusalem to destroy it, but as he was about to destroy it, the Lord saw, and he relented from the calamity. And he said to the angel who was working destruction, “It is enough; now stay your hand.” 1 Chronicles 21:15 (ESV) 27 “Then the Lord commanded the angel, and he put his sword back into its sheath.” 1 Chronicles 21:27 (ESV) Many other scriptures might be cited to show that the angels are in subjection to the will of their Creator and perform His bidding– When Peter came to himself, he said, “Now I am sure that the Lord has sent his angel and rescued me from the hand of Herod and from all that the Jewish people were expecting.” Acts 12:11 (ESV) 6 “And he said to me, “These words are trustworthy and true. And the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, has sent his angel to show his servants what must soon take place.” Revelation 22:6 (ESV) So it will be when our Lord returns: 41 “The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all law-breakers,” Matthew 13:41 (ESV) Again, we read, 31 “And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.” Matthew 24:31 (ESV)

The same is true of evil spirits: they, too, fulfill God’s sovereign decrees. An evil spirit is sent by God to stir up rebellion in the camp of Abimelech: 23 “And God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the leaders of Shechem, and the leaders of Shechem dealt treacherously with Abimelech,” Judges 9:23 (ESV) Another evil spirit He sent to be a lying spirit in the mouth of Ahab’s prophets—23 “Now therefore behold, the Lord has put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these your prophets; the Lord has declared disaster for you.” 1 Kings 22:23 (ESV) And yet another was sent by the Lord to trouble Saul—14 “Now the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord tormented him.” 1 Samuel 16:14 (ESV) So it was also in the New Testament when a whole legion of demons didn’t go out of their victim until the Lord gave them permission to enter the herd of swine.

It’s clear from Scripture then, that the angels, both good and evil, are under God’s control, and willingly or unwillingly carry out God’s purpose. Yea, SATAN himself is absolutely subject to God’s control. When arraigned in Eden, he listened to the awful sentence, but answered not a word. He was unable to touch Job until God granted him permission. So too he had to gain our Lord’s consent before he could “sift” Peter. When Christ commanded him to depart— “Get thee hence, Satan”—we read, 11 “Then the devil left him,” Matthew 4:11 (ESV) And in the end, he will be cast into the Lake of Fire, which has been prepared for him and his angels, Revelation 20:10.

The Lord God almighty reigns. His government is exercised over inanimate matter, over the brute beasts, over the children of men, over angels both good and evil, and over Satan himself. No revolving world, no shining of a star, no storm, no creature moves, no actions of men, no errands of angels, no deeds of the Devil—nothing in all the vast universe can come to pass contrary than to what God has planned in eternity past. Here is a foundation for faith. Here is a resting place for the intellect. Here is an anchor for the soul, both sure and steadfast. It is not blind fate, unbridled evil, man or Devil, but the Lord Almighty who is ruling the world, ruling it according to His own good pleasure and for His own eternal glory.

“Ten thousand ages ere the skies
Were into motion brought;
All the long years and worlds to come,
Stood present to His thought:
There’s not a sparrow nor a worm,
But’s found in His decrees,
He raises monarchs to their thrones
And sinks as He please.

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